The general definition of Access Control
The entrance and exit security management system is a new modern security management system, which integrates microcomputer automatic identification technology and modern security management measures. It involves electronics, machinery, optics, computer technology, communication technology, biological technology, and many other new technologies.
It is an effective measure to solve the security management of the entrance and exit of important departments. Applicable to various confidential departments, such as banks, hotels, parking lot management, computer rooms, armory, confidential rooms, office rooms, intelligent communities, factories, etc.
With the development of proximity card technology and biometric technology, the access control system has been developed by leaps and bounds and has entered a mature stage.
Induction card access control systems, fingerprint access control systems, iris access control systems, facial recognition access control systems, finger vein recognition have appeared Access control systems, out-of-order keyboard access control systems and other technical systems have their own specialties in terms of safety, convenience, and ease of management.
The application areas of access systems are becoming wider and wider.
Safety Access Control
Access control and security systems are used to protect the safety of personnel and property, so the system itself must be safe. The high safety mentioned here, on the one hand, refers to the natural or quasi-natural attributes of the product or system.
The safety of the equipment and system operation and the safety of the operator should be guaranteed. For example, the equipment and the system itself should be able to prevent high temperature, low temperature, Heat, smoke, mold, rain, and can prevent radiation, electromagnetic interference (electromagnetic compatibility), impact, collision, fall, etc.
The operation safety of equipment and systems also includes fire prevention, lightning protection, explosion protection, Electric shock prevention, etc.; on the other hand, the access control and security system should also have the function of preventing man-made damage, such as a protective shell with anti-vandalism, and with anti-disassembly alarm, anti-short circuit and open circuit, etc.
Features of Access Control
With the continuous improvement of people’s requirements for all aspects of the access control system, the application range of the access control system is becoming more and more extensive. People’s application of the access control system is not limited to a single entrance and exit control, and it is also required to be applied not only to the
Parking lot control
Building automation, etc. of smart buildings or smart communities, but also Multiple control functions such as linkage control with other systems.
Real-time monitoring function
System administrators can view the entry and exit status of each door area (with photos displayed at the same time) and the status of each door area (including door opening and closing, various abnormal state alarms, etc.) through the computer in real-time; it can also be opened in an emergency state Or close all door areas.
Access record query function
The system can store all entry and exit records and status records and can be queried according to different query conditions. Equipped with corresponding attendance software, it can realize attendance and card
Abnormal alarm function
In abnormal situations, the access control software can be used to realize a microcomputer alarm or an additional voice sound and light alarm, such as: illegal intrusion, the door is not closed over time, etc.
Depending on the system, access can also achieve the following special functions:
Anti-passback function: According to the different locations of the access control points, set different area marks, and then allow the cardholder to enter and exit according to the preset route, otherwise, the next channel swipe card will be invalid. This function allows the cardholder to enter according to the designated area route. Usually used in prisons.
Anti-tailing function: It means to prevent a card from being used repeatedly when a two-way card reader is used, that is after a valid card is swiped to enter the door, the card must be swiped at the same door to exit the door once before re-swiping the card to enter the door, otherwise it will The card was deemed illegal and refused to enter the door.
Double door interlock: usually used in bank vaults, also called AB door, it needs to be used in conjunction with the door sensor. When the door sensor detects that one door is not locked, the other door cannot be opened normally. Only when one door is normally locked, the other door can be opened normally, so as to isolate a safe passage and prevent criminals from entering to achieve the purpose of hindering and delaying criminal behavior.
Door opening with duress code: When the cardholder is hijacked, in order to ensure the life safety of the cardholder, the door can be opened after the cardholder enters the duress code, but at the same time it will alarm the control center, and the control center will be able to receive the alarm signal Take corresponding emergency measures. The dress code is usually set to 4 digits.
Fire alarm monitoring linkage function: when a fire occurs, the access control system can automatically open all electronic locks to allow people inside to escape at any time. Linkage with monitoring usually means that the monitoring system automatically records the situation when someone swipes the card (valid/invalid), and also records the situation when an alarm occurs in the access control system.
You can also set up, manage, monitor, and inquire in different places through the Internet.
Logic door opening function: Simply put, the same door requires several people to swipe their cards (or other methods) to open the electronic door lock
Basic Units of Access Control
a. Identification of Access Control
The identification unit part is an important part of the access control system, which plays the role of identifying and confirming the identity of the passers-by. There are many ways and types of identification, mainly including card identification methods, password identification methods, and biological Identification type identification method, and composite type identification method.
Fingerprint, palm shape, eye shading, iris, finger veins, face, voice, signature, gait, etc.
2. Person code recognition
Ordinary keyboard, disorder keyboard, barcode card, magnetic card, IC card, proximity card
3. Item feature recognition
Metallic objects, magnetic objects, explosives, radiation, special chemicals
Item code recognition
Bar code, ESA label, QR code, etc.
b. Sensing and Alarm
The sensing and alarm unit includes various sensors, detectors, buttons, and other equipment, and should have certain measures to prevent mechanical trauma. The most commonly used access control systems are door sensors and exit buttons. All of these devices output signals in a switching manner.
A well-designed access control system can encrypt or convert the door sensor alarm signal and the exit button signal, such as converting into TTL electricity.
Flat signal or digital signal. At the same time, the access control system can also monitor the following alarm states: alarm, short circuit, safety, open circuit, request to exit, noise, interference, shielding, equipment disconnection, tampering, etc., which can prevent human shielding and destruction of the digital alarm signal.
To improve the security of the access control system. In addition, the access control system should also have real-time detection capabilities for the alarm line (regardless of the state of the system being withdrawn or armed).
c. Processing and Control
The processing and control equipment part usually refers to the controller of the access control system. The access controller is the center of the access control system, just like the human brain. It stores a large number of relevant personnel’s card numbers, passwords, and other information. The importance of these materials is obvious.
In addition, the access controller also bears the task of running and processing, making judgments and responses to various access requests, including arithmetic unit, storage unit, an input unit, output unit, a communication unit, etc. It is the core part of the access control system and the most important part of the access control system.
d. Electric lock and execution
The electric lock and execution unit part includes various electronic locks, car stoppers, and other control equipment. This equipment should have sensitive action, reliable execution, good moisture-proof and anti-corrosion performance, and have sufficient mechanical strength and anti-damage ability.
There are many models and types of electronic locks. According to the difference in working principle, they can be divided into electric bolt locks, magnetic locks, cathode locks, anode locks, and shear locks, etc., which can meet all kinds of wooden doors, glass doors, and metal doors. The installation needs.
Each electronic lock has its own characteristics and differences in safety, convenience, and reliability. It is necessary to choose the appropriate electronic lock according to the specific actual situation.
The entrance and exit control executive agency executes the control commands sent from the entrance and exit management subsystem and makes corresponding actions at the entrance and exit to realize the rejection and release operations of the entrance and exit control system. Common ones include controlled equipment such as electric locks, car stoppers, an alarm indicating devices, and controlled objects such as electric doors.
e. Wiring and communication
The access control controller should be able to support a variety of networking communication methods, such as RS232, 485, or TCP/IP, etc., and use various networking methods under different circumstances to realize system networking across the country or even the world. In order to consider the overall security of the access control system, communication must be able to be transmitted in an encrypted manner, and the number of encrypted bits is generally not less than 64 bits.
f. Management and Settings
The management and setting unit mainly refers to the management software of the access control system. The management software can run in environments such as Windows 2000, 2003, and XP supports the server/client working mode and can authorize and manage operable functions for different users.
The management software should use a large database such as Microsoft’s SQL, which has good developability and integration capabilities.
The management software should have functions such as equipment management, personnel information management, badge printing, user authorization, operator authority management, alarm information management, event browsing, and electronic maps.
Communication Methods of Access Control
1. Non-networked access control, that is, stand-alone control access control is that one machine manages one door, which cannot be controlled by computer software, nor can you see the records, and is directly controlled by the controller.
It is characterized by the cheap price, simple installation, and maintenance, no records can be viewed, not suitable for places with more than 50 people or frequent turnover (referring to frequent entry and departure), and not suitable for projects with more than 5 doors.
2. 485 networked access control is a type of access control that can communicate with a computer, directly using software for management, including card and event control. Therefore, it has convenient management, centralized control, can view records, and analyze and process records for other purposes.
The characteristic is that the price is relatively high, the installation and maintenance are more difficult, but the training is simple, and value-added services such as attendance can be provided. It is suitable for projects with many people, high mobility, and many doors.
3. TCP/IP network access control, also called Ethernet network access control, is also an access control system that can be networked, but the computer and the controller are networked through a network cable. In addition to all the advantages of 485 access control networking, it also has faster speed, simpler installation, a larger number of networks, and can be connected across regions or cities.
However, the high price of equipment requires knowledge of computer networks. It is suitable for installation in large projects, large numbers of people, speed requirements, and cross-regional projects.
Development Trend of Access Control
As with all technologies, newer systems are more secure and mature.
2. The integration capability of the access control system
Large-scale platforms such as “Internet of Things” and “Smart City” integrate transportation, housing, security, hydropower, education, medical care, sports, entertainment, and government, and integrate security technologies such as comprehensive security management systems to optimize urban management And development, improve urban development problems and build a grid-based social security prevention and control system.
So that the future development of the city will be networked, high-definition, intelligent, and system integration, to achieve comprehensive command and dispatch for a coordinated response by multiple departments and improve Ability to prevent and deal with various accidents, disasters, cases, and emergencies.
Therefore, in the construction of large platforms such as the Internet of Things and smart city construction, the access control system is no longer a mode in which each subsystem operates independently, but must be able to integrate other professional systems such as building automation, closed-circuit monitoring, anti-theft, and fire alarm systems. Coordination and linkage, so that the security integrity and safety are improved.
3. The openness of the system
Realize a variety of applications other than the access control system, including electronic payment parking lot management, computer desktop login system, elevator control and other applications, and through the open access control architecture, achieve seamless upgrades, and provide different upgrade options for the future.
4. The application of mobile access control system will increase and expand to other applications
In 2012, the access control industry laid the foundation for the deployment of mobile access control solutions based on NFC mobile devices. Open doors and other applications through the user’s own mobile phone, including using their own mobile phone to access computers, networks, and related information, as well as using mobile phones to open doors and enter safe areas, bringing more convenience to users.
5. Towards cloud applications
With the advent of mobile access control, another concern is how to deploy and manage virtual credential cards carried by users’ NFC smartphones. Enterprises will be able to configure mobile access control virtual credential cards in two ways.
The first is through an Internet workstation similar to the configuration of traditional plastic credential cards (mobile devices are connected to the network via USB or wi-fi). The second way is through the mobile network operator for air configuration, similar to the way smartphone users download applications and songs.
The mobile application will generate a one-time dynamic password or receive this password via SMS.
Various other access control keys and virtual credential cards will be sent to the mobile phone from the air through a convenient, cloud-based configuration mode, which eliminates credentials The risk of card being copied, temporary credential cards can be issued, lost or stolen credential cards can be canceled, and security parameters can be monitored and modified when needed.